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The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion (Third Edition, Vol. - 12 of 12)

Although discursive practices are too complex to be adequately characterized by them, these ideologies exert crucial political-economic and social effects. Modernity and the status of the modern subject have been defined since the seventeenth century both in terms of "modern" spheres of communicability and by projecting its opposite - "traditional" communication. One way that cultural forms, populations, sites, epistemologies, and social relations get branded as being premodern is by projecting traditional spheres of communicability that purportedly operate in an anti-modern fashion: generated by an anonymous public, orally transmitted, and sent in unilinear fashion to experts, such as folklorists.

By way of illustration, indigenous Venezuelans used traditional narrative forms in making sense of a cholera epidemic that killed some people.

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Public health officials, politicians, and reporters constructed "modern" narratives that blamed the epidemic on indigenous culture, placing their narratives within a modern, scientific sphere of communicability, and characterizing indigenous stories as operating within a sphere of communicability organized by ignorance, superstition, and irrationality.

Alternative narratives that drew attention to institutional racism, global commerce, and environmental degradation were thereby systematically excluded from public spheres that defined themselves on the basis of dominant spheres of communicability. Oleksandra Britsyna. Kiev , Ukraine. The comparative study of repeated performances of prose narratives in traditional occupations provides good evidence of the mode of life of prose tradition. A century ago, a large number of folk prose narrative transcriptions was collected in the Ukrainian village Ploske, and published by O.

Malynka in Sbornik Materialov po Malorusskomu fol'kloru. This collection was the starting point for contemporary fieldwork in Ploske from to Transcriptions of video and audio recordings of numerous performances were published by O. Britsyna and I. A lot of repeated performances were also recorded in other traditional occupations in the different regions of Ukraine during the last 25 years. The same narrator's repeated performances were recorded within different intervals and in different communicative contexts.

These transcriptions were compared with the recorded performances of their "pupils" - bearers who inherited their traditional knowledge from their "teachers".

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The repeated performances are usually marked by textual dependence, mirroring the memory of tradition and its chronological depth. Transcribed oral texts have a lot of common features. The comparative study of these recordings leads to some conclusions about the nature of the oral prose tradition, which is a fundamental basis for the narrator's activity. Contemporary performers re-create texts relying upon traditional knowledge's demands and limits, and upon the communicative context. Special attention in the paper is paid keywords accompanied by more-or-less stable nonverbal elements of the orally performed text.

They manifest them selves variably, and may be regarded as concepts. Keywords are an essential part of traditional performer's competence, which has verbal, non-verbal and semantic dimensions. Vilnius, Lithuania. By "negative legends" we mean here those numerous folk narratives, which employ the typical features and narrative strategies used by traditional belief legends, yet are told in order to discredit the contents of such legends.

Such stories would initially seem to be depicting certain supernormal experiences; the legend-like qualities of special time, place, etc. But usually there is some overly simple or even absurd and comical explanation of the situation attached to the end e. These stories closely resemble belief legends, except for a distinctive "negative sign" added in the end.

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Some researchers define them as negative legends or anti-legends; others do not consider them to qualify as belief legends at all. Closer scrutiny of the archived data revealed that almost all the popular types of Lithuanian belief legends have their "opposites", told in the negative vein. Moreover, these stories clearly enjoy extreme popularity, reflecting the actual folk belief situation in the community at the time of recording, the changes and shifts taking place in the folk worldview and mentality sometimes even allowing us to catch the very moment when the formerly well-established belief in the supernatural phenomena is shaken in the human mind.

In our view, these texts present the results of the natural development of the belief legends, at the same time testifying to the vitality of the genre itself. Many of the Lithuanian negative legends clearly gravitate towards didactical stories, anecdotes, and so on. In some cases, the same event is told from different perspectives including both the haunted and the "ghost" , thus questioning the veracity of the belief itself. Dace Bula. Riga, Latvia. It deals with oral history from a folklorist's perspective and emphasizes the narrator's role in creating a story during performance.

The knowledge of local history is a common resource for all members of the community, yet it is exploited differently. It can be either included in storytelling repertoire or left aside. The stories vary in length and plot; they contain different facts. Past events are interpreted from diverse perspectives and receive competing evaluations when people try link their own lives to the history of the place. Some informants present their knowledge in a form of a legend, some remember and use only a local saying which is believed to be handed down from the mouths of the legendary first landowners.

Jenny Butler. Cork, Ireland.

Ethnographic interviewing as part of research into Irish Neo-Paganism has resulted in a corpus of personal spiritual experience narratives. This paper involves an examination of these narratives as a means of gaining insight into 'lived experience' of Neo-Paganism.

Teke Teke (テクテク - Tek Tek) Japan Mythos / Urban Legend - MythenAkte - German / Deutsch

During interviews, informants expressed subjective experiences or explained something by way of an example of some significant event that occurred. Many informants hold strong beliefs in magical or spiritual energies and analysis of their narratives reveal that, for some individuals, perception of reality may be guided by a magical worldview such that certain events may be interpreted as having mystical or supernatural foundations. It must be kept in mind that spiritual experience is quite difficult to express by verbal means. However, the language of Neo-Paganism contains common motifs and shared significance and analysing the verbal narratives can give us some insight Neo-Pagan belief-systems.

It must also be stated that spiritual life and the interpretation of it remains in the domain of individual experience and that the analysis of select extracts of personal spiritual experience narrative is an endeavour to provide an understanding of Neo-Pagan worldview and is not an attempt to either verify or repudiate the events under discussion. In this paper I also explore psychologist Stanley Krippner's notion of "personal mythology" and how individuals map their inner world and make sense of personal life events and circumstances by recourse to personal myths. Lada Buturovi D.

This paper deals with the identification of the style of oral magic tales through the process of narration in three Bosnian tales - a style that can be identified as compressed narration. Two of the tales were recorded on tape in the s in Zepa near Rogatica; the third was dictated in the late 19 th or early 20 th century and apparently somewhat edited by the note-taker. The process of compressed narration in the story follows the rules of oral literature, relying on memory; memory retains that which is symbolic and significant, and as such is captured in the compressed version.

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Static images are remembered, and are transmissible because of their mythic content, in the shape of fantasies forming the fabric of the narrative. This is the precise subject of analysis in the selected examples. Mythic content derives from myths and, studies to date indicate, is expressed as images located in the mind of and interpreted by individuals. The structure of these three magic tales, determined by the poetics of orality, thus comprises predictable elements, which transmit in static images what is expected of them, in line with the norms of tradition.

The magic of the narrator's words leads one into another world, an anti-universe. The narrator, structurally imitating the hero's long quest, lives through the duration with him, finally to return where they belong. My purpose is to indicate differences and similarities in compression as a stylistic compositional constant of orality, both in the domain of oral tales in general and in the recitation of these three tales.

My attention will focus on the relationship between the tales authentically recorded on tape and the tale edited in the late 19 th or early 20 th century.

Algernon Bertram Mitford

Biplab Chakraborty. Calcutta, India. The changing patterns of Indian proverbs are very much reflected in various literary creations, especially in modern Indian poetry. Indeed, it is mostly expressed in a style of poetic narration called ' Lokaabharan '. The central message of a proverb is often conveyed with a subtle touch of poetic imagination in a different linguistic device.

The changing pattern of the proverbs in relation to their language used and central message needs to be examined from the view-point of folk-narrative research. The present paper examines some major Indian proverbs used in modern Bengali poetry as expressed in a definite and creative style of ' Lokaabharan '. It also compares and contrasts Indian proverbs and their poetic usages in modern poetry. It further highlights how and why folk-wisdom plays a central role in the creative imagination of a modern poet.

Anastasia Christou. Athens, Greece. Key words: Return migration and biographical methods, qualitative research, oral history, life stories, oral and written narratives, interdisciplinarity, positionality and ethics, critical ethnography and interpretative human geography. This paper will focus primarily on the epistemological-interdisciplinary perspectives, ethical considerations and methodological difficulties encountered during the fieldwork study for my PhD thesis.

The issues that emerged throughout the research design and implementation data collection and analysis will be addressed, assessed, analyzed and interpreted. I intend to draw on my own experiences in the field and reflect on the research process and outcome. In addition to offering some insight into the research process, the epistemologies and methodologies employed as well as the debates surrounding interdisciplinarity, I hope through these examples to engage the complexity of everyday life and to deconstruct meaning from that. In highlighting those contexts of everyday life, we can draw means of utilizing prevailing paradigms as a means of understanding reality.